Project Number 502903-LLP-1-2009-1-IT-LEONARDO-LMP
Product user needs analysis report
Title user needs analysis report
Product Type procedure for the analysis and prognosis of the vocational training requirement
The goal of this document is the identification of the most current practices in the
leadership training domain, particularly in the partnering countries (France, Italy
and Spain) where the Learn to Lead (L2L) serious game online tests will be
Another goal is to define the target organizations and people that are likely to use
the L2L serious game analyzing their needs with a view to meet them better.
To achieve that, we had to define the leadership to distinguish it from
management and to take into consideration the particularities of the serious
games related, on the one hand, to their users' age, on the other hand – to the
age of the serious games producers.
Bibliographic and Internet resources allowed us to study the research works and
the most current leadership training practices, including the serious games in
leadership as well as the users' needs.
Description this document is a report of the user needs analysis carried out in the very first year of the Learn2Lead project
Target group Trainers, specialists in training management, decision makers in training management, policy makers, consulting firms.
The objective of this analysis was to identify the most common practices in the
domain of leadership trainings, as well as the needs of the users of the L2L
serious game that the project consortium is going to develop.
Our analysis allowed us to reach this goal taking into consideration the
particularities related to the subject of our study, the leadership trainings (that are
far less numerous than the management trainings if they are not mixed up) and
the creation of a serious game upon the leadership (serious games that issue from
video games are not created by training centers).
The theoretical distinction between leadership and management has shown that
we need to distinguish between the know-how (management) and the social skills
(leadership) to avoid confusing the management trainings (for the managers
possessing an hierarchical power) and the leadership trainings (for the leaders
who do not necessarily possess an hierarchical power), though these two subjects
are linked and there is often such confusion in practice.
This distinction also resulted in approaching the three main theoretical leadership
models based upon the leader's personality, his behavior and circumstances
allowing him to exert his leadership. We could also notice that the last model
based upon the circumstances is mostly studied in the training centers and at the
enterprises and organizations. The McKinsey's list presented in detail on the
page… (18) synthesizes the principal criteria peculiar to the leaders:
trustworthiness, fairness, unassuming behaviour, leader listen, open-minded,
sensitivity to people, sensitivity to situation, initiative, good judgment, flexibility and
adaptability, the capacity to make sound and timely decisions, the capacity to
motivate, a sense of urgency.
The comparison of the leadership trainings in the reference countries based upon
the large surveys and in the partnering countries where the L2L serious game will
be tested has shown that the personal skills determining the social skills which are
also decisive for the leadership are the matter of concern for the enterprises and
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public organizations. However, only the largest companies are able to define their
needs well, particularly in Europe, the smallest companies (employing less than
50 persons) as well as the medium ones (up to 250 persons) have an empirical
approach to the trainings. However, even at the largest organizations, whether
private or public, where the need in leadership trainings is more felt and better
identified, the suggested trainings do not meet the needs sufficiently, neither for
the administrators who think they are not prepared enough for the leadership, nor
for the employees who judge their chiefs or who can be up to exert the leadership
in a certain moment, for example, in a project.
Moreover, it seems that in the USA, the leadership birthplace, and in the Anglo-
Saxon countries the leadership trainings are more popular among the employees,
while in Europe and particularly in France this type of trainings is often intended
for the persons in charge due to organizational reasons (for example, the
significance of the middle management having access to this type of trainings in
Nevertheless, the organizations and the employees should express their need in
leadership trainings, whether explicitly (big organizations) or implicitly (small
and/or medium organizations).
To sum up, the leadership trainings, though far less numerous than the
management trainings with which they are often mixed up, exist as such
nonetheless, according to the list that we drew up on page… (22). These trainings
are mostly of the on-site type though there are the e-learning trainings which are
often carried out using a computer, in the blended mode.
Anyway, the suggested leadership trainings, whether having the words "leader" or
"leadership" in their headings or not, are related to the topics that were identified
in all the countries and particularly in the partnering countries where the L2L will
be tested. These principal themes are as follows: effective communication, team
building, conflict/crisis management/resolution, motivation. They can be reduced
to the themes which are more leadership-oriented, as "Clarify the goals", "Define
the real issues for the organization and the teams", "Create a powerful link
between the strategy and the goals of utmost importance", "Develop the bases of
confidence", "Improve the personal impact".
Finally, we could list the majority of the serious games related to the leadership
that are not numerous and are mostly used by the large companies and the
organizations that have ordered them. We could also define the particularity of this
type of training tool those issues from the video games industry. The popularity of
video games that concerns the majority of the population under 25 to 30 years old
and its diffusion among other age categories, particularly by a simple progress of
the age pyramid, leads to the natural growing interest for the serious games,
which is confirmed by the surveys we have analyzed and the interviews we have
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In this respect, a recent study carried out by the Institute of Executive
Development and Mannaz concerning 111 enterprises in Europe and in the USA
has shown that at 75% of the polled enterprises a passage to the individual
coaching and tutelage is going to be effected (with a guidance from one
administrator to another for 69%).
This study has also shown that in the domain of the leadership trainings program
65% of the enterprises have mentioned the need to stimulate the spirit of
enterprise and innovation, as well as the improvement of the global quality of the
For Jorgen Thorsell, the Vice-President of Mannaz, the world crisis we are in
reveals the new needs beyond the skills of the persons in charge to manage the
teams and the individuals. These needs boil down to the empowerment, the
autonomy rate, risk-taking and spirit of enterprise.
Though these needs that have already been mentioned are not new, they allow
the enterprises and organizations to resolve their problems more efficiently.
Nonetheless, these needs undoubtedly express the necessity of leadership
trainings democratization making it possible for everyone in the enterprise or the
organization to do his best and to possess the part of the power he needs for the
accomplishment of his tasks.
The video games like the serious games that already stimulate some of the
qualities peculiar to the leadership can allow their users to exert it.
This will be the goal of L2L that we are going to develop on the basis of this
analysis which can be completed during the other stages of this project.
Area of application We have used this report to design the game mechanics and the teaching methodology
Product Languages English