Title Innovative Ansätze in der Berufsbildung in der Sozialwirtschaft Klein-und Kleinstunternehmen
Project Number 2008-1-PT1-LEO05-00404
Project Type Innovationstransfer
Marketing Text Tsesme Ergebnisse können einen positiven Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Humanressourcen in den Unternehmen der Sozialwirtschaft durch die Bereitstellung innovativer und adoptable Werkzeuge für die Bewertung der Ausbildungsbedarf und Leitlinien für die Durchführung der beruflichen Bildung Programme.
Summary The strategic aim of the project in the medium term is the improvement of the innovation potential of social economy organisations which is a key factor of success and important to survive in the globalised economy as well as to accomplish the European social model. TSESME focuses on the specific situation of organisations into third sector, greatly the small and medium enterprises of the social economy sector, where vocational training needs are investigated insufficiently and there is lack of resources for planning vocational training actions. TSESME aims to improve the vocational training system in social economy enterprises by providing innovative and adoptable tools for the assessment of training needs and guidelines for the implementation of vocational training programs particularly in micro organisations. Selected tools will be elaborated as web based assessment application and all tools, models and guidelines will be compiled in a compendium that will be available in printed form as well as on a web platform in all partner languages. Based on the models, training measures will be realised in all partner regions. The consortium is composed by 4 organisations (PT; AT; LV and TR), compiling the required expertise to fulfil TSESME objectives. MERIG, the Austrian partner, was the coordinator of the prior TRAINSME project, the project that is actually being transferred. In the short term all participating organisations as well as small and micro organisations of social economy, participating in the evaluation, assessment and pilot processes, will directly profit from the new tools and models for a better assessment of learning needs and will also have the opportunity to test new tools and training models. The participants in the project processes will raise their human capital and directly profit from the trainings provided in the pilot studies. In general the project will raise awareness about vocational training in small and micro enterprises and will introduce ways to innovation processes. In the medium and longer term the project will provide wider access to training for managers and employees in small and micro enterprises and will encourage educational partners to develop more individualised and needs oriented training programs. The project results shall be adopted and transferred to other regions and sectors and will contribute to human resource development in small and especially micro enterprises in general.
Lifelong learning and vocational training are the most important indicators for innovation and development processes and thus the motor in the European economy. TSESME focuses on the specific situation of organisations into third sector, a very significant sector3 representing 10% of whole European enterprises and 10% of total employment providing services benefiting quasi-totality of the population. Social economy assembles a great number of activities and covers different types of rganisations5. Research emphasizes the role of the social economy for a variety of Government policies, as: inclusion, through its community connections; regeneration, a number of organisations has seized a leading role in community regeneration; skills and lifelong learning – a subset of Inclusion and Entrepreneurship. Social economy organisations develop a holistic, client-focused approach at which it is adept; competitiveness and entrepreneurship –the sector generates enterprise and social entrepreneurs.
Nevertheless, social economy faces various constraints that render difficult its role. TSESME addresses the small and medium enterprises of the social economy sector where is more visible a lack in personnel development. Recent studies and partners’ experiences show that sector constraints fall into three main categories –specific to social economy organisations, imposed by the external environment and shared with for-profit SMEs. Specific constraints to the social economy include: Diffuse, confused and multiple goals - causing problems in their management and in stakeholder perceptions; A lack of social entrepreneurs – and ensuring that they can adapt to management as an organisation matures; Management skills – deriving from the very nature of the organisation; Managing organisational change – involving issues of cultural and technical capacity; Funding – issues around timescales, asset creation, surpluses and the perspectives of founders and stakeholders; Human resources – with problems around training (accessibility and affordability) and difficulties in sourcing volunteer labour; Dependency and resistance to change – often associated with shifting from a grant culture; Other constraints – finding premises, competition within the sector, founder demands for quick results and the effect of adverse publicity. The external and institutional constraints includes a lack of co-ordinated support, lack of awareness or a negative perception on the part of stakeholders, access to finance (in suitable forms) and regulatory issues. The constraints reported that match the experience of the private sector includes: Lack of management skills in marketing, IT, business planning and raising finance; Under-development of human resources; Pressures leading to short-term thinking and behavior as a result of limited financial and material resources; Problems of succession management; Bureaucratic procedures of public agencies.
Most of these constraints can be tackled through a customer-focused support, namely at vocational training level. The latter often is not directly related and harmonised to the occupational profile due various reasons, as following: - The vocational training needs are investigated insufficiently in most of the addressed organisations; - There are no or few resources for active human resources development, namely in small and micro organisations of the social economy and there is also a lack of medium and long term strategic and systematic planning for organisational and personnel development. - Detected training deficiencies are often neglected, because the organizations cannot afford the loss of time, production and flexibility resulting from an employee who is attending training courses during work-time. - There is lack of resources for planning vocational training actions in small and micro organisations and also a lack of knowledge about funding possibilities. - To some extent people in small and micro organisations are frustrated about the standard training packages which are available on the market, because these vocational training offers only meet their needs to a small extent and are seen as waste of valuable work- or leisuretime.
The social economy SMEs presents common constrains with all remaining for-profit SMEs. There is evidence showing that a lack of skilled labour is the main obstacle for SMEs. Recent survey indicates the existence of a positive relationship between enterprise size and the regular nature of the enterprises' competence development activities, what suggest that SMEs, specially the smallest ones, suffer from a number of specific obstacles in developing their competence base8.
A European literature survey9 underlined that the main reason for not carrying out formal training activities is also related to lack of time considerations. Other important reasons include, in this order, insufficient financial resources, lack of planning and, finally, lack of relevant training courses.
Further studies and experiences allow the following statements: • Small and micro enterprises are also particularly affected by the cost of developing the competence base of their workforce, especially if the expected economic returns are not very clear. Such costs include the direct and the costs related to the absence of an individual employee, as well. • Another important barrier is that in particular micro- entrepreneurs are often not able to diagnose their own competence needs effectively. The entrepreneur's limited information and contact with sources of competence results in a limited overview of the opportunities available and links to their workforce's competence needs. • There are no or few resources for active human resources development in small and micro enterprises and there is also a lack of medium and long term strategic and systematic planning for organisational and personnel development. • Small and micro enterprises are often critical about the quality, extent and orientation of the existing supply of formal training and external advice. Too theoretical and seldom tailored to the companies needs are common criticisms. Employees themselves may be a barrier to the upgrading of their competence levels, especially if they are unconvinced of the benefits of learning, they are afraid of further responsibilities derived from them or they have limited. The situation in all partner regions concerning the company structure is similar since the regional economies are built on prospering small and micro enterprises. Summarising we can conclude that it is necessary to foster vocational training in small and micro enterprises and support the innovation potential which is important for these companies to meet the challenges and chances of the European integration and the globalisation.
A significant number of those SMEs are in the social economy sector, focuses on social economic self-help of poor people and disadvantaged communities, especially the foundation of cooperatives
Sectors Erziehung und Unterricht
Verfahren zur Analyse und Prognose des Berufsbildungsbedarfes
The result of the project will be tools for needs assessment and models for the establishment of needs oriented vocational training. Selected needs assessment tools will be provided as online applications and tested in the pilot studies. A compendium on the assessment and implementation of vocational training needs in social economy small and micro enterprises will be formulated. It will include detailed analyses of existing models and their strength and weaknesses; vocational training needs assessment tools and guidelines for the realisation of needs oriented vocational training focusing on the specific situation of small and in particular micro organisations of the social economy sector. The compendium will be available in printed form as well as on a web platform in the final stage of the project in all partner languages. The following list of the steps of the project implementation shows the main interim and final results of the project:
Detailed needs analyses: In each partner region the needs of small and micro enterprises of the social economy will be assessed (personal interviews and questionnaires with managers and personnel in regional enterprises, stakeholders etc.) and analysed in detail. The analyses will be compiled and enriched by detailed studies on recent theoretical models and publications. A mapping of existing expertise, limitations and needs in all participating countries will be the result of this step. It is important to point out that on the one hand existing need analyses and backgrounds are reflected and used but on the other hand specifically the needs of micro enterprises in the participating regions are assessed where we identified a lack on recent and feasible data.
- Elaboration of models and guidelines: Based on the analyses and inputs of the project partners’ models for the elaboration of individualised, needs oriented training programs will be elaborated. A specific focus of the models is the application of e-learning programs and the advantages and disadvantages of ICT support of vocational training in small and micro organisations of social economy. Selected tools will be provided as web applications.
- Testing, evaluation and validation of the new tools and models: Based on the models, training measures will be developed and realised in all partner regions. The development process (the models, the web applications etc.) and the realisation of the pilot trainings will be assessed in detail.
- Final models and guidelines: The final step in the project is the update of the models and the elaboration of the handbook and web applications. The handbook and web based assessment tools will be available in the languages of all participating partners on the WebPage, on CD Rom and in the printed compendium.
- Professional project management, a well-coordinated dissemination and exploitation strategy and a well-elaborated evaluation strategy accompany the implementation of the project. The detailed dissemination and evaluation plans will be drafted within the first 3 project months and consequently updated. The exploitation strategy will be published within the interim report. The project team intents to further develop and exploit the project results after the finalisation of the project was finished offering the on-line service and the publications to social economy enterprises.